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The Viking Age (800-1050 AD) was a period of Scandinavian expansion through trade, colonization and raids. The first raid was against Lindisfarne (England) in 793 and is considered the beginning of the Viking Age. This could take place because of the development of the longship, suitable for travel across the sea, and advanced navigation techniques. Vikings were well-equipped, had chain mail armor, were well-trained and had a psychological advantage over Christian counterparts since they believed that being killed in combat would result in them going to Valhalla. In addition to gold and silver, an important outcome from the raids were thralls (unfree servant), which were brought to the Norwegian farms as slave workforce. While the men were out at sea, the management of the farm was under control of the women.

The 13th century is described as Norway's Golden Age, with peace and increase in trade, especially with the British Islands, although Germany became increasingly important towards the end of the century. Throughout the High Middle Ages the king established Norway as a state with a central administration with local representatives. In 1349 the Black Death spread to Norway and had within a year killed a third of the population. Many communities were entire wiped out, resulting in an abundance of land, allowing farmers to switch to more animal husbandry. The reduction in taxes weakened the king's position, and many aristocrats lost the basis for their surplus, reducing some to mere farmers.

In 1397, under Margaret I, the Kalmar Union (1397-1536) was created between the three Scandinavian countries. Margaret pursued a centralising policy which inevitably favoured Denmark, because it had a greater population than Norway and Sweden combined. Margaret also granted trade privileges to the Hanseatic merchants of Lübeck in Bergen in return for recognition of her right to rule, and these hurt the Norwegian economy. The Hanseatic merchants formed a state within a state in Bergen for generations.

Sweden was able to pull out of the Kalmar Union in 1523, thus creating Denmark–Norway (1536-1814) under the rule of a king in Copenhagen. Frederick I of Denmark favoured Martin Luther's Reformation, but it was not popular in Norway, where the Church was the one national institution and the country was too poor for the clergy to be very corrupt. Initially, Frederick agreed not to try to introduce Protestantism to Norway but in 1529 he changed his mind. All church valuables were sent to Copenhagen and the forty percent of the land which was owned by the church came under the control of the king. Danish was introduced as a written language, although Norwegian remained distinct dialects. Professional administration was now needed and power shifted from the provincial nobility to the royal administration: district stipendiary magistrates were appointed as judges and the sheriffs became employees of the crown rather than of the local nobility. In 1572 a governor-general was appointed for Norway with a seat at Akershus Fortress in Oslo. From the 1620s professional military officers were employed.

After Denmark–Norway was attacked by the United Kingdom at the Battle of Copenhagen (1807), it entered into an alliance with Napoleon. As the Danish kingdom found itself on the losing side in 1814, it was forced, under terms of the "Treaty of Kiel", to cede Norway to the king of Sweden, while the old Norwegian provinces of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands remained with the Danish crown. The Union between Sweden and Norway (1814 - 1905) was born.

Christian Michelsen, a shipping magnate and statesman, Prime Minister of Norway from 1905 to 1907, played a central role in the peaceful separation of Norway from Sweden on 7 June 1905. After a national referendum confirmed the people's preference for a monarchy over a republic, the Norwegian government offered the throne of Norway to Prince Carl of Denmark, and Parliament unanimously elected him king. He took the name of Haakon VII, after the mediæval kings of independent Norway.

I did visited Norway in august 2013.

On that trip i visitted Svalbard

Please let me know when you're having questions.
i would be pleased to help you.

Things to do and other tips

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This illustrate's my memories of Norway:

See my "Things to do" pages for more pictures.
These are divided in:

When i'am visiting a country i like to be prepared;
So i know something about the Country and i can plan the things to visit.
That's why i 'm reading books;looking at travel maps etc.

See my "Things to read" pages for Books/Maps about